For many years, fatty foods have been thought to be the cause of extra pounds. But relatively recently, researchers have revised this theory and come to a completely different conclusion. It turns out that you can eat large portions of fatty foods as well. . . lose weight! There is even a special diet with proteins and fats called ketone.
What is the keto diet
A ketogenic, ketone, or keto diet is a diet based on consuming foods that are low in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and high in fat.
Adherence to such a nutritional program triggers a process in the body known as ketosis, which actually leads to the burning of fat stores. But that was not the first reason to create a keto diet. The ketone diet program was originally used as part of a comprehensive therapy for pediatric epilepsy. But after a while it became clear that this diet is very effective for weight loss. People who have tried to lose weight at least once in their life know that very often the lost weight is not necessarily the fat deposits that they managed to get rid of. Weight loss will often be due to the removal of excess fluid from the body or the destruction of muscle mass. But on a ketogenic diet, the lost pounds are guaranteed to be split fats. To understand how a ketone diet works, you must first understand what ketosis is, which actually gave its name to this food system.
Every food that people consume is a source of three important nutrients: protein, fat and carbohydrates. In the process of carbohydrate metabolism, the body gets extra energy as well as “food” for brain cells. But if a portion of the food consumed contains excess carbohydrates, all that the body could not process and utilize immediately is sent to “buckets, ” so to speak, on a rainy day. And those "buckets" are nothing but subcutaneous fat deposits. And this process is repeated every time you eat a meal high in carbohydrates.
And now the main question: what will happen to the body if its "supply" of carbohydrates is cut off?. If carbohydrates are completely excluded from the diet, then, honestly, nothing good will come of it. A long-term carbohydrate hunger strike can even end in death. But that is only in the extreme case when the consumption of nutrients is reduced to zero and does not compensate for a long time. However, if carbohydrates are not completely excluded from the diet, but only reduced to the minimum necessary portions, then you can count on a fairly rapid weight loss.
What is the purpose of the ketone diet
When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, it begins to look for backup energy sources. And such reserves already exist and they are contained in the subcutaneous fat. This means that the body initiates the breakdown of fat cells, resulting in the formation of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the ones that serve as a substitute for glucose. In addition, when the body enters a state of ketosis (increased concentration of ketone bodies), the frequency of epileptic seizures in people with epilepsy decreases. Why this is happening, scientists are still researching.
For medical purposes, for the treatment of epilepsy, the ketone diet includes eating foods with a minimum amount of carbohydrates, and the amount of protein and fat in the diet should be in a ratio of 1: 4. That is, all foods rich in carbohydrates are removed from the diet and introducedas much fat as possible to preserve the calorie content of the diet. But not all types of lipid diets are equally effective. In order for the body to start ketosis, it is important to consume medium chain fatty acids, such as those in coconut oil, instead of long chain fatty acids.
For the first time, mankind learned of the benefits of a ketone diet for the treatment of epilepsy in the early twentieth century, but interest in this method soon cooled in medical circles and revived only almost a century later. But in the meantime, the keto diet has found new uses and become part of the sports diet.
In addition, there has been a lot of talk lately that the keto diet is good for cancer. If all the complex scientific explanations are left aside, the procedure goes something like this. Cancer cells need glucose to maintain their viability. With a lack of carbohydrates, malignant formations lose their ability to grow. Research in this area is ongoing. But an experiment conducted in 2012 in New York involving 10 volunteers with malignant tumors confirmed this theory.
Keto diet: duration, stages, adjustment
Sometimes you can hear that the keto diet is a common low-carb diet. In fact, this is not the case at all. According to the principles of influence on the body, this system is very similar to the popular Atkins diet. A ketone diet restores the body from normal glycolysis to lipolysis, and this takes time. Therefore, in order to achieve results, the ketogenic program should be monitored for 2-3 weeks. In addition, no significant loss of body fat should be expected in the first week, as at that time the body has not yet reorganized into a new regimen and continues to process the remaining carbohydrate reserves.
The stages of body restructuring look like this:
- First. It lasts 12 hours after the last carbohydrate meal. At this stage, the body will make full use of its available glucose reserves.
- Other. It lasts 24-48 hours. At that time, the body depletes the glycogen stores contained in the liver and muscles.
- Third. Beginning of metabolism restructuring. The body seeks an alternative to carbohydrates in fatty acids and proteins, including those found in muscle mass.
- Fourth. It starts on the 7th day. The body adapts to a lack of carbohydrates and restores itself to a ketogenic state, giving up protein as a source of energy.
In addition to the above steps, there is another one - the right way out of the keto diet. You can’t immediately switch to a full carb-rich diet. The body has to adjust again, but this time it will have to adjust to glycolysis.
For this, carbohydrates should be taken gradually, increasing their amount to a maximum of 30 g per day.
What the keto diet consists of
There is no clearly scheduled ketone menu for a week or more. The keto diet is a low carb diet. As a rule of thumb, to enter ketosis in the body it is important not to ingest more than 30-50 grams of net carbohydrates per day.
The keto diet, although in small amounts, still contains carbohydrates. Nutritionists advise you to choose fiber-rich vegetables as a source of this nutrient. This is necessary to maintain healthy digestive processes. On the diet you should not eat ready meals, semi-finished products, purchased sauces. They all have a lot of carbohydrates in the form of starch and sugar. In order to prevent the depletion and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves, preference should be given to foods with so-called complex carbohydrates (cereals, cereals).
In some cases, it is allowed to consume a small amount of fast carbohydrates, but their source should in no case be sweets, but only fruit.
Although fat in the keto diet is not a forbidden ingredient, there are certain rules for choosing foods that contain fat. Ideally, saturated fats (found in butter, meat, cheese) should make up about 20-30% of your total lipid intake. The rest should be obtained from foods rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
A protein plan can be filled with both animal and plant foods.
Food allowed in the diet:
- different types of meat;
- fish (especially marine fish);
- dairy and fermented dairy products (better with a lower percentage of fat, because they contain less carbohydrates);
- starch-free vegetables (preferably leafy);
- fruit with minimal sugar content.
- sugar and other sweetening matter;
- butter products;
Based on this list, it is not difficult to compile a menu for a week or for the entire course of the diet. The main thing is not to exceed the allowable amount of carbohydrates.
The Keta diet has been around for a long time. Builders use this food system to burn and dry fat. But unlike the classic version of the ketone diet, in sports the ratio of fat to protein shifts toward the latter. At the same time, the amount of carbohydrates in the diet for athletes should not exceed 10%. Otherwise, you will not be able to lose weight effectively.
Depending on the weight of the diet, there are three options for a ketone diet:
- standard keto diet;
- targeted or targeted;
The standard version is considered the simplest version of the keto diet. Observing it, it is important to adhere to the constant ratio of BJU on a daily basis, traditionally focusing on proteins and fats, limiting carbohydrates. This diet option is suitable for athletes who do not exercise very intensely or who tolerate physical activity well without consuming large amounts of carbohydrates. In addition, this is an option followed by most people who want to lose weight and are not associated with professional sports.
The targeted ketogenic diet is approximately given carbohydrates. This option is only suitable for athletes. Carbohydrate loads on the keto diet are performed twice: immediately before and immediately after training, the rest of the time you need to adhere to a standard ketogenic program. This option is the right solution for people who want to start burning fat, but in the background of a lack of carbohydrates feel a lack of strength for a complete workout.
A cyclic ketone diet allows for occasional carbohydrate intake for days. This cyclicity allows you to follow the diet for a long time, but at the same time protect the body from a critical lack of carbohydrates. How often to repeat carbohydrate days depends on the athlete’s goals, training intensity, and level of consumption of carbohydrate stores in the muscles. But before you start a cyclic keto diet, you should go through the standard and goal.
Keto diet and muscle building
There is a lot of evidence on the effectiveness of a ketone diet for weight loss. But is it possible to observe this dietary system for athletes eager to increase muscle mass? Experts say that it is possible, most importantly, not to forget to count the calories burned. Excess calories in the diet promote muscle growth, and a lack leads to weight loss. But if the main task is to build muscle, then the choice should be made in favor of a targeted or cyclical version of the diet. They allow you to start “drying out” without damaging your muscles.
Keto menu for athletes
The standard BJU proportions for athletes look something like this. For each kilogram of lean muscle mass should be delivered 0, 22-0, 44 g of carbohydrates, 2, 2 g of protein and 1, 8-1, 88 g of fat.
If an athlete follows a targeted keto diet, an additional amount of carbohydrates should be ingested at a rate of 0. 5-1 g per kilogram of dry weight immediately before training. This portion can be divided into two meals: before and after training.
On a cyclic keto diet, it is common to introduce additional portions of carbohydrates no earlier than 2 weeks after starting the diet. On carbohydrate filling days, nutrient intake should be increased by 5-10 g per kilogram of dry weight, but instead, fat intake should be reduced. This will help maintain a proper calorie intake.
Side effects and potential hazards
The first and most obvious side effect of a ketogenic diet is general weakness. During the first 7-14 days, the body will recover to a ketogenic state, and a lack of carbohydrates at this stage in most people is accompanied by breakdown and weakness. But after adjustment, health will improve and the body will learn to experience ketone bodies as the main source of energy.
In some people, consuming large amounts of fatty foods can increase blood cholesterol levels, which in turn is detrimental to the cardiovascular system. In addition, a low-carbohydrate diet generally contains few vitamins, minerals, and many other beneficial ingredients. To prevent the development of vitamin deficiency, ordinary multivitamins from the pharmacy will help you.
Another threat to the ketone diet is intestinal disorders. Insufficient fiber intake (usually found in carbohydrate foods) causes constipation, intestinal dysbiosis, and other unpleasant side effects.
In addition, the ketogenic diet is strictly forbidden for people with diseases of the thyroid gland, kidneys, liver or digestive tract.
But the benefits and harms of a ketone diet for diabetes have yet to find a clear opinion among researchers. Some argue that a carbohydrate-free diet is beneficial for people suffering from sugar. Others tend to think that the ketogenic condition could further exacerbate diabetic ketoacidosis.
Pregnant women, nursing mothers, children and adolescents should not switch to a carbohydrate-free diet. It is better to find another weight loss diet for people whose work requires increased mental activity, because the lack of carbohydrates significantly affects the brain, causes fatigue and apathy.
Thanks to a non-standard approach to weight loss, the ketone diet is of interest to many people who want to lose weight. But in addition to the fat burning effect, this food system also has many side effects. Therefore, nutritionists recommend that overweight people simply reduce their daily calorie intake in the diet to begin with, and use the keto diet as the final stage of weight loss - to dry and create a muscle relief effect.